Saturday, February 11, 2012

Revision 1

Technology and Social Isolation in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

In Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, different forms of technology take on the forms of being necessary, evil, or a combination of necessary evils. World War Terminus not only destroys the world, but also civilization. In the first chapter of Herbert Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man, “One-Dimensional Society,” he discusses advanced industrial civilization. Specifically, he addresses the concept of alienation that can be the product of technology creating a sort of societal control. In today’s culture, technology also plays a role in isolating individuals from reality when they become dependent on them, such as different forms of social media or alternate reality games. So maybe society now is not so far from the future of Dick’s novel. Marcuse’s conclusions about how technology can result in an advanced form of alienation when they lose their identity and just blend in with society resonates with Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, with characters immersing themselves in technologies that force a control upon them that they have difficulty connecting with the reality of other humans.

A prime example is J.R. Isidore, a special, or genetically damaged being who cannot leave earth, who lives alone in his apartment. His story is interwoven with Rick Deckard’s. When Isidore turns off his television, he experiences an overwhelming silence that “supplants all things tangible” (Dick 18). The silence for him, which is something that also covers the earth now, consumes him.

He wondered, then, if the others who had remained on Earth experienced the void this way … He lived alone in this deteriorating, blind building of a thousand uninhabited apartments, which like all its counterparts, fell, day by day, into greater entropic ruin. Eventually everything within the building would merge, would be faceless and identical, mere pudding-like kipple piled to the ceiling of each apartment. And after that, the uncared-for building itself would settle into shapelessness, buried under the ubiquity of the dust. By then, naturally, he himself would be dead, another interesting event to anticipate as he stood here in his stricken living room alone with the lungless, all-penetrating, masterful world-silence.

Isidore’s passage notes that the silence is entropic. In the novel, the characters sense the entropy of the earth as they almost destroy all of humankind. After World War Terminus, silence consumed the world, resulting in a heightened alienation as people found themselves without human connections. Marcuse calls alienation “questionable” a few times because it’s a more elaborate concept. The reality of alienation is at a further stage, one in which the subject is “swallowed up by its alienated existence” (Marcuse 6). It’s during the silence that Isidore recognizes his loneliness, so he clings to his empathy box to combat the silence.

Isidore’s attachment to technology is his empathy box, which connects the people into a collective consciousness that shares the pain of Wilbur Mercer, who took an infinite walk up a mountain as people cast stones at him. Marcuse, before his conclusion about the definition of alienation, says when people are confronted with the advanced industrial civilization, they tend to “recognize themselves in their commodities” and that is how social control is anchored (Marcuse 6). In the year 2012, people are dependent upon their computers and televisions among others, which they function as a form of escape from physical human beings. Isidore, who is not by choice isolated from humans, avoids the anxiety of the silence in his deteriorating apartment by resorting to his empathy box. “As it did for everyone who at this moment clutched the handles, either here on Earth or on one of the colony planets. He experienced them, the others, incorporated the babble of their thoughts, heard in his own brain the noise of their many individual existences. They — and he — cared about one thing; this fusion of their mentalities....” (Dick 20). According to Christopher Sims in his essay “The Dangers of Individualism and the Human Relationship to Technology in Philip K. Dick’s ‘Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?’” humans use technology to merge their experiences with the consciousness of Wilbur Mercer by using the empathy box. “Mercerism fills the void of religion because, while it provides a source of comfort to isolated individuals, it also supplies a moral framework for humans to live by in the wake of the disintegration of former religious and governmental institutions” (Sims 82). Marcuse discusses the concept of introjection within his discussion of alienation. He talks about the way that “introjection” is perhaps not the best description of how people perpetuate society’s controls. Because Isidore, and others, are consciously using the empathy box, maintain their own awareness, but are also aware of others. So it would be fitting to conclude that introjection is not the correct term to use because, like Marcuse says, Isidore does not have an inner dimension that is separate from the behavior of the rest of the people.

Iran, Rick Deckard’s wife, is one person immensely attached to technology – especially the empathy box. She knows how to trick the box to make it elicit other emotions (Dick 4). She’s become dependent on the empathy box, like so many others, which has led them to become detached from reality with other humans. Rick, who doesn’t want to use the empathy box, also feels a sort of detachment then from those using the empathy box. At one point, “Rick stood holding the phone receiver, conscious of her mental departure. Conscious of his own aloneness” (Dick 174). By not using the empathy box, Rick is not melding with society. When people today don’t embrace technology, they are left out of the loop. We all collectively use social media websites such as Facebook not only as a form of sharing emotional ties, but also as a form of advertising ourselves. By using the empathy box, Iran is not alone, like Rick when he doesn’t use the empathy box. “This is what the experience of fusion docs for the practitioners of Mercerism; it creates an empathetic synthesis of every human mind. From within this synthesis each individual has the knowledge that he or she is not stumbling through reality alone, that there is in fact an "other" with whom we can actually connect and commiserate” (Sims 80).

However, whenever Rick Deckard engages with Mercerism the first time comes after Buster Friendly blows the lid off the practice, which lends itself to an interesting segment of the novel about how Mercerism and Buster Friendly interact. They compete with one another as they continue vying for the control of the people. Not only are people relentlessly attached to their empathy boxes, their eyes are also glued to the screen when “Buster Friendly and his Friendly Friends” is on for 23 straight hours. So the people are being controlled by this show, and it also fosters isolationism as people are obediently watching the show. Buster Friendly debunks Mercerism by exposing that all of the scenes and suffering are artificial, thereby throwing out Dick’s religious solution to capturing the essence of humanity following World War Terminus. Rick Deckard decides at this time to use the empathy box, to connect with the rest of society through the box. But when he does so, he fuses in a sense with Wilbur Mercer, not receiving the intended results from the box. “‘It’s strange,’ Rick said. ‘I had the absolute, utter, completely real illusion that I had become Mercer and people were lobbing rocks at me. But not the way you experience it when you hold the handles of the empathy box. When you use an empathy box you feel you’re with Mercer. The difference was I wasn’t with anyone; I was alone” (Dick 232). Instead of sharing emotions with others, he feels alone. Yet, he still fuses to Mercer because, even though Buster Friendly says he is a fraud, Rick believes that Mercer is reality (Dick 232). Religion was developed as a physical object, but the novel takes this a step further in saying that it’s not just an artificial object, but it’s also something being embedded into the followers.

While the technology created is meant to establish a connection between individuals to develop empathy, effects of the technology create an alienating effect. Rick Deckard, Iran Deckard, and J.R. Isidore each experience loneliness at some point in the novel. The alienating effect makes them want to form a social collectiveness. “The manifold processes of introjection seem to be ossified in almost mechanical reactions. The result is, not adjustment but mimesis: an immediate identification of the individual with his society and, through it, with the society as a whole” (Marcuse 5). World War Terminus was the product of a lack of social collectiveness, with humans behaving toward one another as predators. But the technology that destroyed the earth now contributes to an alienation effect that Mercerism tries to solve by providing a void to isolated people. A failure to identify with others will mean that people will suspect one another of being androids.

Works Cited

Dick, Philip. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? New York: Ballatine Books, 1968. Print.

Marcuse, Herbert. "Introduction, Chapter 1." One-dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon, 1964.


Sims, Christopher. “The Dangers of Individualism and the Human Relationship to Technology in

Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” Science Fiction Studies 36.1

(2009): 67-86. Online.

1 comment:

Adam said...

What I'd like to see in the first paragraph, but it is absent, is something more to clarify the importance of understanding the role of alienation in DADES - does it help us understand the novel as a whole? If so, how? Or does it help us understand ourselves and, if so, how? You just fall a little short of really explaining to us why we need to care...

I very like like your reading of Isidore through Marcuse - maybe because it's not at all obvious in some ways how physical entropy is paired with internal isolation.

The things you're beginning to say about the empathy box and introjection are interesting. Introjection, I think, is basically about how individuals internalize social controls, which you're certainly writing about - but with the empathy box (as you clearly recognize, even if your essay isn't polished on this subject) that the external and the internal are blurred much more than they are in Marcuse's understanding of our society.

You're beginning to articulate a important way in which we might use Marcuse as a lever, of sorts, to dig deeper into this text. What does it mean that introjection is no longer really internal - that what would seem to be introjection is becoming simple injection? This matters, but how? You're right that we need to change our terminology - but you draw no implicatiosn from it.

You briefly discuss facebook, etc. Is facebook introjection, or post-introjection? You are starting to draw the connections here, but not finishing them.

I think what you're doing with Mercerism is good, but not quite complete. You note that what Isidore experiences is more/other than introjection, such that we need a new term. You note that Deckard is alone even in what should be the post-introjection, communal experience: this seems like alienation amidst introjection, or post-introjection. Does this mean he resists the experience (which would mean that he engages in negative thinking) or that we need yet another term?

Overall thoughts: This is a very thoughtful and interesting exploration of some of Marcuses ideas in relationship to PKD. It's admirably focused, up to a point, by sticking to the empathy box and the concepts of alienation, introjection, etc., that we should be applying to it. Where it's unfinished, for me, is that you don't work on drawing implications. Isidore, you argue, doesn't just experience introjection, but something beyond. Deckard experiences alienation precisely when he' s not supposed to, amidst introject (or post-introjection). Then you bring in mimesis, without wondering especially if Deckard is resisting mimesis, or is something else is going on (is Mimesis resisting him?).

In other words: this is an excellent *exploration* with a limited *argument*: now that you've beautifully exposed how we could theorize some aspects of the empathy box, what do you want to do with it, whether your reading strictly focuses on the novel, or whether it moves on to us (facebook, etc)?